What Makes Great Training? 10 ideas for developing subject knowledge and pedagogy

Screenshot 2016-01-10 08.08.45

The need to improve the quality of professional training for teachers is, I think, becoming increasingly well understood. In a time of shrinking budgets and teacher shortages, improving professional development has in some ways become as important about teacher recruitment and retention as improving student outcomes.

Recent publications have provided clarity to where leaders should target their efforts to improve in-school professional learning. The 2014 Sutton Trust report into Great Teaching, for instance, outlines the benefits on student outcomes of teachers who are well versed in their subject.

the most effective teachers have deep knowledge of the subjects they teach, and when teachers’ knowledge falls below a certain level it is a significant impediment to student;’ learning. As well as a strong understanding of the material being taught, teacher must also understand the ways students think about the content, be able to evaluate the thinking behind students’ own methods, and identify common misconception.’

The need to focus school CPD on developing subject-pedagogy alongside more generic forms of training is also a feature of the more recent Teacher Development review, Developing Great Teaching:

the findings from this review indicate the importance of focussing on generic and subject specific pedagogy, so it will be important to consider how subject expertise in particular can be developed alongside more generic aspects as part of CPDL.

In many respects, it should not come as any great surprise that the greatest impact on student outcomes is likely to come from a teacher who knows their subject well and how to teach the nuances and challenges of it to different learners at different stages of their development. The heavy focus on developing ‘generic’ skills was wrong and imbalanced.

As with most things related to teacher development, however, just knowing about what to do can be a far cry from actually being able to put it into practice. I know a lot of teachers, myself included, who broadly understand how to improve aspects of pedagogy, such as giving explanations, honing questioning or improving modeling, but they are not always able to do so themselves. Implementing the how often proves more difficult than understanding the why.

In similar vein, I suspect some school leaders understand the need to focus CPD efforts on developing subject pedagogy, but have not yet figured out how to do it effectively. I know from my own experience how hard it is to make a more subject-specific model of professional learning work. Time is a significant factor, but so are levels of expertise, particularly, for example, amongst some heads of departments.

For years, I suspect that many subject leaders have not really been responsible for shaping the professional development of their teams. Just turning over that responsibility– particularly at a time of considerable change in exam syllabus and assessment – is unlikely to bring about any significant change in the quality of professional learning. This responsibility is significant, especially for less experienced colleagues or colleagues schooled in genericism.

Last September, we changed our curriculum, which meant we could enshrine two hours of professional development a week. The majority of that time – around 40+ hours – is dedicated to improving subject knowledge and subject pedagogy. Whilst this is fantastic, just making more time available was only ever a part of the answer to reversing the failings of the past. We want departments to be in a position to continually develop a better understanding of their subject’s unique demands, so we need to provide them with the tools and guidance to make this happen, which takes time and careful planning.

10 Ideas for improving subject knowledge and pedagogy

In this post I offer 10 ideas about the kinds of activities and resources that we have looked to try and introduce to help teachers and departments to develop their subject knowledge and subject pedagogy. It is not an exhaustive list, but I hope it gives a few pointers about where to start the process of developing subject-specific CPD, or where further improvements can be made for those already in a strong position, such as Durrington School in West Sussex.

  1. Presentations and seminars 

Giving presentations or running seminars on particular areas of strength is an excellent way of sharing the responsibility for developing subject knowledge across a department and, moreover, for improving the ability of individuals to present to adult learners. Some of our departments have developed their own subject knowledge audits to identify strengths and design seminar schedules across the course of the year. In some of these sessions there has bee pre reading, or post seminar activities, such as discussion groups or lesson and curriculum planning sessions. It is our intention to have audits for every subject, partly to pinpoint training needs, but also to help identify and, in turn, circulate expertise more easily, particularly across larger departments.

  1. Subject knowledge audits

Identifying the spread of knowledge in a department is an important step in planning for the development of individual teachers and making sure the needs of the students are successfully met. Subject audits also provide an excellent means of identifying existing areas of expertise, which can be harnessed for the benefit of others. Threshold concepts might be a good way to audit knowledge, but whatever methodology is used it is important that the subject knowledge requirements identified are genuine. In some subjects, like English, PGCE audits like this  or this can be quite vague and unhelpful. Rating degrees of confidence with teaching Victorian literature, for instance, is not the same as auditing the books I have read on the subject or posing questions that pinpoint the concepts or historical details I know. This kind of audit is, I would argue, much more helpful for identifying gaps in knowledge or for throwing up important misconceptions.

  1. Lesson Study

Whilst Lesson Study is often conducted by teachers from across a range of different subject areas, in many respects it makes more sense for three teachers from the same subject to get together to investigate a subject-specific research enquiry question. Peter Dudley, one of the architects of introducing this form of professional development activity into the country, certainly sees its benefits. Writing about the ‘learning points’ of groups working on pedagogical content knowledge, he notes how:

…LS group members are held [to account] by the level of detail required in their planning and analysis discussions ([which] forces even tiny difference of view about practice or content to become exposed.

Lesson Study: Professional Learning for Our Time

If you have not yet looked into lesson study, this document is a great introduction into the format and how to implement it into your school. The Teacher Development Trust and their Network of schools across the country provide considerable guidance and ongoing support with implementing Lesson Study as part of an annual membership. I really cannot recommend membership to the TDT enough.

  1. Wider reading

Conducting wider reading or research takes time. Reading books, articles, reports and websites or blogs should therefore be seen as an entirely legitimate and justifiable professional learning activity. It may be that time is required to read a set text, or research recent developments in a subject area. Departments could pay for membership of their professional body and, as a result, receive publications and journals containing valuable advice, links and networking opportunities. Academic and specialist journals are also available online and local universities often have subscriptions and electronic access to periodicals. I wonder how many departments meet to discuss the ideas in a chapter from a text book, or share their thoughts around a poem. These may seem like frivolous activities, but eat up a lot of teachers’ time outside of school, and collaborative discussions such as these can help fuel debate, identify student misconceptions and lead to a shared approach to explaining difficult concepts to children.

  1. Online courses

Online seminar courses and programmes offer an excellent way for teachers to connect with professional learning communities, including some of the most prestigious university departments and academics in the world. There are a number of different online courses, which are perfect for matching up subject specific needs with personalised learning programmes. Many of the courses are free and those that do charge are relatively inexpensive given the quantity and quality of the material provided. It would be entirely possible for both individuals and small groups of teachers to follow the same online programme, or listen and discuss a particular lecture. Mark Miller has written a good post about how he listens to a lot of wider reading on his way to work in the car.

  1. University links

As Michael Young illustrates so well in Knowledge and the Future School, It is important for subject disciplines to stay connected with their learned communities. It is these communities, namely university departments, subject associations and professional bodies, that link classroom practice to current university research and help make sure that teachers have access to cutting edge insights into their subjects and the ways in which they these can be taught. These connections can take different forms according to the nature of the subject, but in each case they help keep teachers abreast of current developments in their field, which, in turn, make sure that students’ learning is at the forefront of knowledge both past and present. It should be perfectly acceptable for teachers or members of a department to use department or INSET time to visit a university library and research information unavailable elsewhere.

  1. Visits, exhibitions and public lectures

Visits to exhibitions, galleries or museums are often the only way for teachers to develop aspects of their subject expertise, perhaps by seeing important works first hand or learning about how an idea, style or period is represented in different formats. Public lectures by leading academics or subject experts are also a useful means of enhancing professional knowledge. Whilst it is more economical and desirable for speakers to speak to entire departments, this is not always be possible to arrange. This post by Harry Fletcher-Wood goes into more detail about why these kinds of visits are an important part of staff development.

  1. School collaboration

The same principles of external and local collaboration should be encouraged across networks of local schools. It may well be the case that individuals or whole departments in nearby schools and sixth form colleges have specific expertise that can be utilised for the benefit of all. As with the harnessing of university expertise, local teacher knowledge and understanding can be purchased or shared as part of a reciprocal arrangement. This could take the form of developing subject knowledge, or sharing specific insights and approaches gained from individuals working closely with examination boards or subject associations. In some instances, particularly in small similar departments and faculties, it may be beneficial to pair up colleagues with similar training needs for collaborative work.

  1. Leverage coaching

If you are lucky enough to have lesson observation equipment like IRIS Connect, then you have a fantastic tool that can help you to develop a shared understand of effective subject pedagogy. There are two main applications of the lesson observation equipment that can make a difference in supporting a department’s work on developing their understanding of effective subject pedagogy. The first is to develop a bank of masterclass videos illustrating different pedagogical techniques, contextualised within the subject and produced by members of the department. The group facility on IRIS Connect is a fantastic way to discuss points of teaching and keeping examples for posterity, such as an optimal explanation of tragedy for use with future trainees. Lesson observation equipment, such as the Discovery Kit option of IRIS, provides the ideal means for subject-specific coaching: short leverage coaching sessions could be a regular feature of departmental time. These again from Harry Fletcher-Wood are a wonderful primer on the methodology.

  1. Subject specific external providers

There are a number of providers of subject-specific training courses and development opportunities. Below is a short list of some of the main providers of subject-specific training. Departments may wish to invite teachers who have been on external training to feedback to the rest of the department, or to colleagues who would benefit from the information or approaches shared. This acts as a further layer of professional development. Subject professional associations offer another potential way of finding out about high quality subject-specific professional development opportunities. Often the website or professional journals of these associations provide details of current courses on offer and discounts for members are available.

Some providers of subject specific knowledge and pedagogy:

  • SSAT


  • The Prince’s Teaching Institute


  • Science Learning Network


I have written elsewhere of the impact of reviewing student learning as whole department activity, either as part of a learning review or joint planning and assessment via a collaborative teaching cycle. Both of these are great subject-specific development activities, which I hope to write about again in the future.

Here is a useful link to a list of subject associations.

Thanks for reading.


Published by Phil Stock

Deputy Headteacher, Teaching, learning and assessment. Interested in education, spending time with my family and running - all views are my own. @joeybagstock

6 thoughts on “What Makes Great Training? 10 ideas for developing subject knowledge and pedagogy

  1. Readers of this blog may be interested in the GeoCapabilities project – ‘Teachers as curriculum leaders’ – aimed at engaging geography teachers (internationally) in deeper thinking about what they teach (i.e. substantive subject knowledge) and how they use this to develop the ‘capability set’ of students via ‘curriculum making’ – a model is the same as your opening diagram with exemplification.
    GeoCapabilities uses five underpinning key ideas: (i) the capabilities approach, (ii) ‘powerful’ disciplinary knowledge (iii) powerful pedagogies, (iv) curriculum making, and (v) curriculum leadership.
    These ideas resonate with the many of the ideas you raise and discuss in this blog.
    Although initially aimed at geography teachers – the longer term intention is to enable the ‘capabilities approach’ to be applicable to other school,subjects and teachers. Below is a summary of what underpins the GeoCapabilities approach.

    Teachers need to think how specialist knowledge can be reconceptualised in the form of geography as a school subject. This requires teachers to re-engage with ‘curriculum making’ as a way of grasping the significance of specialist teachers.
    GeoCapabilities argues that geography teachers can provide access to specialist ‘world knowledge’ and ways of thinking geographically that enable young people to think the ‘yet-to-be-thought’. Or, in the words of the GA’s 2009 Manifesto, to travel with ‘a different view’. Through taking professional responsibility for interpreting the curriculum, all teachers are curriculum leaders.
    GeoCapabilities offers geography teachers a framework for developing their professional responsibility as subject teachers and curriculum leaders. It provides a means of thinking about what they teach that is enabling and adaptable for creating a curriculum of engagement. As such, GeoCapabilities is not a series of lessons or activities but it is an attempt to grapple with the limits of school curricula based on competence and transferable skills and re-establish the value of geography as a subject in contributing to human capability.
    To help geography teachers adopt the GeoCapabilities approach, and develop the curriculum making and leadership skills to make it happen, four online professional development modules are currently being constructed. It is envisaged that these will be tackled in the context of staff development work within school geography departments, in geography teacher consortia, in sessions led by initial teacher educators or through other trainer-led collaborative teacher education programmes
    The modules aim for teachers to
    1. develop understanding of (geo)capabilities and its potential to enable a different view of the world, through reflection on their own teaching schemes of work and by discussing examples of the geographical power of powerful disciplinary knowledge (presented as geographical story map ‘vignettes’)
    2. grasp the significance of curriculum-making and professional judgment as a deliberate act of sequencing and interpreting what pupils will do with the materials and experiences we provide
    3. evaluate video case-studies of teachers discussing and critically reviewing their attempts at curriculum making and what this means for a ‘Future 3’ curriculum
    4. develop curriculum leadership using ‘lesson study’ and ‘practical theorising’ frameworks to encourage a confident and collaborative understanding of how a GeoCapabilities approach might be used to convey and express the value of geography and thinking geographically in the curriculum and teaching.
    The first modules are expected be available for trial in the latter half of 2016 – meanwhile the project has a website with a range of materials that are certainly relevant for geography teachers but may also be of interest to other subject teachers too. http://www.geocapabilities.org
    And if the geography teachers of your school are interested in developing a capabilities approach to curriculum leadership – then do put them in touch.

    Duncan Hawley

  2. This is a great post clearly communicating your vision. Over the last few years I’ve read with interest the number of people who’ve advocated (further) developing subject knowledge over developing generic pedagogy. I’ve always felt subject knowledge was vital but the idea of me spending CPD time reading up on action potentials, calcium channels etc (I teach Science) seemed an inefficient use of time as it wouldn’t benefit my GCSE classes as much as developing my questioning, explanation etc.
    This on the other hand “I wonder how many departments meet to discuss the ideas in a chapter from a text book, or share their thoughts around a poem. These may seem like frivolous activities, but eat up a lot of teachers’ time outside of school, and collaborative discussions such as these can help fuel debate, identify student misconceptions and lead to a shared approach to explaining difficult concepts to children” I couldn’t agree more with.
    Perhaps my preconception that developing my subject knowledge meant (just) developing it with new knowledge at degree level has meant I’ve dismissed the premise too quickly. Thanks for showing me that this is not the only way and not the only definition.
    (Disclaimer- I am not saying that developing degree level subject knowledge is a bad thing)
    Ps. It was a pleasure to meet you at TLT15

    1. Hi Damian. Thanks for leaving this comment and for your kind words. I can see why you thought this way, and I’m glad I’ve helped shift your thinking. We still have a balance of professional learning, but much more focus now on subject knowledge and pedagogy. Good to finally meet you too!

  3. Lots of useful suggestions here, thank you. Obviously you are focused on the topic from a secondary perspective, but in terms of both primary and secondary teachers, I wonder if there is some merit in the idea of encouraging teachers to become better at *doing* the subjects they have to teach, as well as just having *knowledge* about them. So, we could encourage English teachers to practice writing and publishing their own writing in different forms, as well as just reading more books (in a similar way to the way that Drama teachers extend their knowledge each year through putting on a school production or even performing in a school revue). I always feel that learning through *doing* is a very powerful tool for teachers, which is why I will often use scenario based situations in my behaviour training. As an added benefit, it makes them think more about themselves as learners.

    I’m always just a tiny bit nervous about tying up the idea of knowledge about the historical context of literature, with a study of literature itself. I can see that it has some relevance (for instance, when studying Miller you would need to know about McCarthy, etc.) but I do slightly worry that we are over playing how crucial it is in an understanding of a text. Just because it is something concrete in terms of ‘knowledge’ that we can teach and test, doesn’t mean that it has primacy of importance in the teaching of literature.

    Hope that makes some kind of sense!

    1. Hi Sue. Thanks for leaving this comment. I agree that application should be aligned with knowledge or theory. I am certainly not advocating just working on subject knowledge, but how that is used as part of a subject pedagogy. We have lots of CPD around this form, including writing, sharing learning insights and departmental coaching. I guess the balance at secondary had swung far too far towards genericism, so this is a move the the way. Anyway, thanks again.

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