The race to the bottom is still very much on!

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Like you, I get lots of emails every day. I’ve not yet figured out – or rather not bothered to figure out – how to turn off the automatic alert. As a consequence, I frequently get interrupted at work. Earlier this week, an email popped up with the subject Quotation Bank in it. Mildly intrigued and on this occasion needing a distraction, I clicked the link. I wish I hadn’t. I think I have discovered a new low in educational profiteering.

As their name suggests, The Quotation Bank offer banks of quotations for all the major exam texts, all helpfully analysed for meaning and method. Whilst they are probably no worse than any other study guide, online or otherwise – they all adopt the same cynical approach of focusing relentlessly on assessment objectives and working backwards from mark schemes – there is just something very depressing for an English teacher of reducing literature to a bunch of quotes. Equally disheartening is having a whole industry that exploits the narrow end goal, but invests very little (by way of decent textbooks) on how to actually get there.

Perhaps I have a particular beef with what Quotation Bank has to offer because to me it signals a new low in the race to the bottom – one step too far in the finding of cute ways to maximise exam success through the back door. It’s fair enough for teachers to arm their students with an understanding of the text’s key lines alongside the study of the text itself, but to build a revision approach around a few decontextulised snippets alone seems to me to be rather missing the point, and certainly not what I thought I was signing up for when I came into teaching English.

All this reminds me of something that occurred a few years back when I was teaching Dorian Gray at AS level. I remember coming across a critical opinion crib sheet on the Internet, which consisted of a dozen or so quotations from different critics about the novel. I think I sighed before continuing my searches. I wouldn’t have given it a second thought, were it not for the fact that a couple of weeks later when I was reading through some recently released exemplar essays from the exam board, I came across some of the essays that contained the exact same critical quotations. Word for word.

Now it may well be that the crib sheet came after the exemplar essays. Maybe a resourceful student (hopefully not a teacher!) got hold of the scripts and knocked up a list of all the critics mentioned onto a flashcard for their own preparation. I don’t think so, but it was over five years ago now, so I cannot be sure. Either way, it doesn’t really matter. A quick search now for some of the ‘critics’ cited (and their supposed thoughts on Dorian Gray) throws up multiple cheat sheets and online flashcards with exactly the same material. It’s the literary equivalent of what journalist Nick Davies calls Flat Earth News, where news stories become news stories by sheer virtue of being spread widely with no one having the time, inclination or expertise to check their validity.

Now, I don’t expect A Level students to read the whole of tomes like Simone De Beauvoir’s Second Sex – who has? – but I would hope they could handle more than just a few pithy lines from a dubious critic. I’ve always been of the belief that one of the purposes of A level study, particularly in a subject like English, is to prepare students for the next stage of an education, whether or not they choose to continue with it. A level should, in part, be about introducing students to scholarship, teaching them the concept of literary theory and giving them a decent taste of the real thing. Not watered-down soundbites designed to convey an appearance of knowledge.

In my opinion, these are both examples of the race to the bottom – a race that is unfortunately still being run, despite the best efforts of many principled teachers and school leaders to base improvement on long-term, sustainable developments informed by evidence and genuine subject expertise. The pressure to achieve success is clearly is still all consuming and fuels a desire to find ways to bypass hard work, to look for quick wins and is the reason why companies like Quotation Bank continue to exist. The knock-on effect for a university education is only too clear.

What I think confounds the problem is the failure of the exam boards to do their jobs properly. And I am not just referring here to their inability to distinguish between knowledge and soundbites. It seems to me that, at least in my subject, there are just not enough examiners and that those examiners we do have do not always have the expertise required to examine properly. Whilst anecdotal, I know of several teachers who examined this year on texts that they had not read. A Twitter poll I conducted a few months ago suggested these were not isolated cases. Now, if you think about it – that’s ridiculous: you determine the grades of students for a text you’ve never read!

The response to this would probably go something like, ‘oh, but it’s the skills you are assessing for on the mark scheme.’ Sounds plausible, but it’s really just nonsense. Again, only anecdotal, but we have had several cases where our strongest students got much lower grades than we expected. Obviously, I understand we all have good days and bad days, but almost every time we ask for scripts back it is clear the examiner has not fully recognised some of the more sophisticated points made, and that trite, yet obvious analysis is rewarded whereas insight and subtlety is not. Surprise, surprise – on almost every occasion we appeal, grades go up, sometimes by a ludicrous number of marks.

It would be better if exam boards stopped focusing on making money on designing resources to support the teaching of their own specifications. The primary function of an exam board is surely to design and assess their qualifications, and to make sure the grades they award are consistent and fair. The curriculum, teaching and learning is for schools and teachers to worry about. Likewise if exam boards put more money and effort into recruitment, and not relied on the dubious proposition of valuable CPD for teachers, they would not need to lower the bar to get all their scripts marked. If all examiners had expertise in what they were examining, students would be encouraged to understand the whole text and get to grips with hard content and not just how to create the impression that they understand.

Without a market for short cuts, there would be little incentive for anyone to provide them, and the race would turn round in the other direction.

 

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Quietly confident (thanks to the new A levels!)

 

Obviously, this is an ironic representation. I much prefer white wine!*

Next week my year 13 class sit their first literature exam – two short analytical essays on Hamlet, and a comparison of A Doll’s House and Christina Rossetti poetry. For the first time in long while – perhaps ever – I have not run any one to one sessions or taught any additional after school revision classes. My students have not written hundreds of essays, or emailed me constantly in my holidays with questions or additional work to mark.

And yet, by Jove, I think they are ready.

Obviously, time will tell, and I am aware of the hubris I am inviting by publicly asserting my confidence in their readiness. It may well be that Kris will underperform, or that Rose will not fulfil her potential. In either eventuality, however, I don’t think I will feel any regret about my teaching or the approach that I have taken. They are all ready; I don’t think there is anything more I could have done!

Things have not always been this way, though, and I have not always felt quite so calm at this time of year. There are probably two reasons why I am feeling sanguine. The first is experience. This is my 13th A2 class and with each passing year, I become a little less caught up in exam season frenzy. I care a great deal about my students, but I care much more about my own children. I do what I can with the time I have available, which has decreased since I have become a dad and get more tired.

The second, arguably more significant reason for my relative confidence is, believe it or not, down to the linear nature of the new examinations, and, in particular, our school’s decision not to bother with any interim AS exams. For maybe the first time in my career – I had two year 11 classes, a year 12 class and a year 13 group in my NQT year! – I have been able to teach the curriculum properly and with fidelity to the principles of how students learn best.

Most years I pick up exam classes and have the (dubious) pleasure of preparing students for exams in only a few months’ time. There are usually stacks of poems to learn and lots of coursework to get through. What I believe about student learning goes out the window, in favour of short-term performance wins. Even with year 12, I am often unable to teach like a research champion because of the reductive nature of unit assessment.

Last year, I wrote of the joy I was experiencing with the greater freedoms afforded by linearity, and this has only continued since. I have been able to properly embed a range of strategies and for once feel like, along with the reduction in the number of texts on the syllabus, there is enough time to properly explore texts, as well as get meaningfully into contextual factors, different theatrical interpretations and theoretical approaches.

Knowledge

Take Hamlet. Under the previous modular system, in one term there would only be enough time to read the text together once as a class, simultaneously trying to get to grips with characters, events and emerging themes, whilst also analysing key passages and relating ideas to contextual details. Talk about cognitive overload.

This time, and with my present year 12 class too, I have been able to read the play multiple times and got to watch several different interpretations. On each sweep, I have been able to focus on particular things: character, plot and basic ideas first time round; close analysis of key scenes the next; wider interpretations and theoretical readings in later readings. We finished the course at Easter, and have been revisiting ever since.

Spacing and Interleaving

As well as being able to return to the texts multiple times, the new linear A level has provided opportunities to space out readings and interleave them with other content. So, for example, after reading Hamlet for plot and character, we were able to study some Rossetti poems and make a start on the coursework. Returning to each set text – with frequent quizzing in between – seems to have strengthened student understanding.

Quizzing

Without the pressure of rushing through lots of content – or worse, missing out swathes – there has been time to build in systematic quizzing. At the start of every lesson I am able to test students on their knowledge and understanding, creating regular retrieval practice as well as opportunities for valuable formative assessment. Crucially, I have had the time to address any misconceptions and explain things again if necessary.

Deliberate Practice

By far the biggest impact the new two-year A Level has had on my teaching is the time it has provided for developing the quality of students’ writing. For quite a while now, I have been delaying getting students to write. Long gone are the days of reading a couple of scenes or a few chapters and then manufacturing an exam-style exam just so students get to do an essay. It’s a written subject, so there must be lots of extended writing, right?

Actually, no. As the experience of the last few years has shown me – particularly with my current cohort – endless essay writing does not maketh the literature student. What it does maketh is a mountain of substandard work for the downtrodden teacher who has to then dutifully mark it, often to little or no avail. Whilst there were in year 12, I hardly set my students any essays, focusing instead on developing their knowledge base and engaging in deliberate practice of specific sentence types, such as thesis statements.

Only in the last few months have my class been writing whole essays. What has struck me is how quickly their essays have developed. Usually, it would be quite a while before I would see an uplift in style, argument and depth of analysis, but this year, my students have made much more progress much more quickly. I genuinely think that knowing more about the texts has increased their confidence and allowed them to articulate themselves more coherently. The depth of their arguments is noticeable.

Final word

I don’t want to overplay things. I am certainly not suggesting my students will get extraordinary results because of anything extraordinary that I have done. Some will do very well; some will do as expected; others may end up disappointed. ‘Twas ever thus.

What I think, and hope, is different this time, is that my students will have got their results without having to complete endless mock examinations, come back every week after school for weeks on end, or knock out an unrealistic amount of essays. I also think that a lot more of what they have learnt will last beyond the exam, which I am not sure I can say, hand on heart, has always been the case.

More than anything, though, the changes to specification and linearity have meant that I have been able to teach in such a way that is efficient and sustainable, for my students and for me. Much of their success will come down to how well they have applied themselves and, of course, to how well things go on the day itself. This things are largely beyond my control, and whilst I will naturally be disappointed for any that underachieve, I will not have any regrets about how well I have prepared them.

I have done my best for other people’s children, without having had to sacrifice valuable time with my own.

This is what teaching should be like for all teachers, whether parents or not.

 

* image taken from: http://www.altonivel.com.mx/42105-13-personajes-que-no-debes-contratar/

 

 

On Poetry II – Poetry and the poetic

bob-dylan-not-a-poet-casey-jamesLast year Bob Dylan won the Nobel Prize for Literature for ‘creating new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition.’ Whilst I can appreciate the splendor and immediacy of his lyrics, and the gruff poetic beauty of his rolling voice, I don’ think he is a poet and or that his songs should be considered poetry, at least not in terms of poetry written for the page and for private contemplation.

This probably sounds a bit dismissive of Dylan’s craft and shows a lack of respect and appreciation for all he has done for music over the past few decades. I can already hear the knives sharpening from those who believe that Dylan is a poet, which would only intensify were I to question the credentials of artists like Morrissey, Nick Cave or Jarvis Cocker who are also commonly referred to as poets.

The art of these writers is without question; their contribution to culture undeniable. To say the likes of Bob Dylan are not poets is not, though, to denigrate their achievements or to call into question their artistry, but to recognise the difference between song lyrics and poetry. Many of their lyrics are clearly poetic, but they are not really poetry.

Poet Glenn Maxwell has a simple exercise to make it clear how poetry is fundamentally different to song lyrics. It involves writing out the lyrics of your most cherished song and then reading them bare – just the words on the page. In every instance the effect is striking. As Maxwell observes, ‘if you strip the music off it it dies in the whiteness, can’t breathe there. Without the music there is nothing to mark time, to act for time.’ Great songs need music; great poems do not – they generate their own.

You that build all the bombs

You that hide behind walls

You that hide behind desks

I just want you to know

I can see through your masks

‘Masters Of War’ – Bob Dylan (1963)

 

Yes, I wish that for just one time

You could stand inside my shoes

You’d know what a drag it is to see you

‘Positively 4th Street’ – Bob Dylan (1965)

This matters to how we approach the teaching of poetry. I’ve often seen students led into poetry through the medium of song. The implication is that poetry cannot be enjoyed on its own terms, only by being brought into the orbit of something more familiar. Nothing wrong with making things relevant, I hear you cry. Well, yes, sometimes. The problem here is the message it sends out about the status of poetry – that it’s just like songs – and the misconceptions about meter it creates further down the line.

Chief among these approaches is the use of rap music. Many a lesson I’ve witnessed with Eminem or Dre used to inspire students to study poetry. Aside from the perennial danger of trying to be down with the kids – it never works – there is the danger of misleading students about the nature of poetry, and setting up problems when we want to turn to the technical nitty-gritty of rhythm and rhyme.

If song lyrics get lost in the white wilderness , then rap lyrics disappear altogether – all the energy, anger and delight of the rhythm and rhyme vanishes. Without the beat, there is nothing. The lyrics look daft; they are not strong enough to withstand the encroaching whiteness. Song lyrics, however slight, need some accompaniment, whether a guitar, a beat, or even the voice itself recast as instrument. Poems generate their own music, but songs need rhythms from elsewhere and the presence of the performer.

Look, if you had, one shot, or one opportunity

To seize everything you ever wanted. In one moment

Would you capture it, or just let it slip?

Yo

‘Lose Yourself’ – Eminem (2002

Robert Frost understood this difference between poetry and the poetic. In 1913 when he first met Edward Thomas in Harold Monro’s Poetry bookshop,  he knew he’d come across a genuine poet, even though Thomas had yet to write any verse. Thomas read and wrote prodigiously. By the time the pair met, he had already published some two dozen books and written almost 2,000 commissioned pieces, including a great deal of nature writing.

The next day was the missel-thrush’s and the north-west wind’s. The missel-thrush sat well up in a beech at the wood edge and hailed the rain with his rolling, brief song: so rapidly and oft was it repeated that it was almost one long, continuous song. But as the wind snatched away the notes again and again, or the bird changed his perch, or another answered him or took his place, the music was roving like a hunter’s.

 from In Pursuit of Spring – Edward Thomas (1914)

Thomas wrote poetically, but he didn’t write poems. In his nature writing, Frost saw the potential for Thomas to turn his poetic prose cadences into the music of poetry. He badgered Thomas to take his eye and ear for nature and turn it into verse. The poems came thick and fast, with some 70 or so written in the first six months of 1914. Often Thomas returned to the notebooks he kept from his long walks in the Gloucestershire countryside, or to the published prose pieces that they begat. The result was something fundamentally different. Poetry.

What did the thrushes know? Rain, snow, sleet, hail,

Had kept them quiet as the primroses.

They had but an hour to sing. On boughs they sang,

On gates, on ground; they sang while they changed perches

And while they fought, if they remembered to fight:

So earnest were they to pack into that hour

Their unwilling hoard of song before the moon

Grew brighter than the clouds.

From ‘March’ – Edward Thomas

The poems that Edward Thomas produced before his tragic death from a shell blast on the first day of the battle at Arras are, in my opinion, both beautiful and brilliant. That is not to say that they are necessarily any more beautiful or brilliant than anything penned by Eminem or Dylan, but simply to recognise that they are different in what they achieve and how they go about achieving it. If we fail to acknowledge this distinction and rely instead on seguing from song lyrics to poetry, we are effectively undermining the orientations of both forms.

So let’s not try to call everything that is poetic poetry, or we end up diminishing the rich tapestry of aesthetic expression, whilst devaluing the skill of the poet – the skill to move through word and sound with nothing more than inky black marks on white open space.

Much is poetic; precious little is poetry.

On Poetry I: What is this thing we call a poem?

It was a typical day at university for Professor Stanley Fish. He had just finished teaching his linguistics class. Some of the names of linguists he had discussing with his students were still on the board when his next class started to arrive for their literature seminar. Fish decided to make one small change between classes. He drew a box round the assignment details and wrote p43 at the top.
The list now looked something like this:

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Fish’s next move was simple but significant. He told his literature students that there was a religious poem on the board, similar to the ones they had been studying the past few weeks, and he then invited them to interpret its meaning. The students duly obliged and it wasn’t long before they were offering all kinds of interpretations, from initial readings of the poem as a hieroglyph to highly convincing interpretations of the symbolism of the Hebrew names Jacob, Rosenbaum, and Levin.

What Stanley Fish had stumbled on, and what he found on every occasion he repeated the trick, was the reality of how readers tackle the act of interpretation. His little teaching sleight of hand had revealed that readers do not approach literary works as isolated individuals but rather as part of a community of readers. As he writes in Is There a Text in the Class?, ‘it is interpretive communities, rather than either the text or reader, that produce meanings.’

In essence, Fish’s literature students did what literature students do in a classroom situation: they interpret the text put in front of them by looking for allusions and patterns of meaning, regardless of whether they are even there. The more the students interpreted specific parts of the poem, the more they convinced themselves that they had built a coherent sense of its overall meaning. The only problem, of course, was that it was all nonsense. There was no poem and therefore no meaning!

At no point did any of Fish’s students question the validity of the text itself, or whether what they were interpreting was even a poem. Because they were working in the context of a literature class, in the presence of a professor of literature and confronted with what looked like a poem, they assumed it was a poem and without thinking they adopted the rules for interpreting obscure religious verse they had learned – rules they had clearly internalised from years of making inferences about literary texts.

Now, we could lament the way that a bunch of hitherto bright students could be so uncritical in their approach to reading. We could even despair at how cultural relativism has reached such a nadir that a simple list of linguists could be mistaken for a profound religious poem. I think, however, this misses the point. As Fish notes, this is ultimately how we approach reading all texts, literary or not – as a community. Even to interpret a list of linguists as a list requires a shared understanding of the concepts of seriality, hierarchy and subordination. This is the nature of interpreting meaning from text.

I think there are some lessons to draw from Fish’s work in relation to teaching and, more specifically, to curriculum design. The first is to recognise the responsibility we have in selecting the texts we teach. We should make sure that what students will be interpreting has substance, both in terms of its intrinsic value and its utility. Mark Roberts has written about the failure of poems like ‘Tissue’ to do either of these things well. I’ve never taught ‘Tissue’, but as long as I can remember there has always been quite a bit of guff like that in the GCSE anthology, most of it sadly of the contemporary variety.

Don’t get me wrong, I am not against modern verse per se, and I am certainly not suggesting we should avoid all forms of contemporary literature. That said, I don’t think GCSE students should be wasting their time interpreting poems like ‘Tissue’. The funny thing is that most of the students I have taught seem to share a similar view. I always think classes will respond much better to poems like ‘Brendon Gallacher’, ‘Blessing’ and ‘Kid’ but actually when they write about ‘My Last Duchess’ or a Shakespeare sonnet they have much more to say and they say it with much greater conviction.

The second important lesson we can we learn from Stanley Fish’s work on interpretative communities relates to the order in which we teach students the poems that we select. I’m guessing that one of the main reasons that Fish’s students so readily interpreted a list of linguists as a religious poem was because they were used to seeing poems that looked like that, namely without a clear form or discernible structure – they understood the free verse style that characterises much of the poetry of the last century, and which has dominated the contents of many an anthology since.

Whilst Fish’s students may have mistakenly treated his list of names as a poem, they would have probably have understood why a poem that doesn’t rhyme or contain any clear poetic structure could be considered a poem. They would be familiar with poets who broke with formal conventions, like e.e. cummings, Sylvia Plath and William Carlos Williams, and learnt the reasons for these literary developments. In short, they would have in mind some kind of literary chronology, which is perhaps something that we should bear in mind when we are designing the spread of a five-year curriculum.

Perhaps most importantly, I think Fish’s example highlights a need for us to consider how we approach teaching poetry, particularly in a clear and systematic way that builds upon the work of KS2 teachers. I wonder if one of the reasons why Fish’s students were misled by a mere list, is that they had never really been encouraged to take a step back whenever they approach a new text – to appreciate its overall beauty; to consider it at a conceptual or formal level before diving straight in to try and account for it and locate its meaning. Maybe whenever they were ever presented with a poem at school, they were immediately asked to interpret or provide some kind of emotional response.

This is all well and good, and I do this kind of thing regularly. This year, however, I have been teaching a year 7 class for the first time in ages, which has given me the opportunity to begin to think through how I might teach things like poetry a little differently, by which I mean to teach students a conceptual appreciation of poetry as well as an emotional and technical understanding. I want them to be able to infer meaning, but also to comment on different forms and how these might be linked to developments in artistic expression and philosophy. A more holistic approach to understanding.

This is obviously hard. It is so tempting to introduce a poem and start to elicit ideas about its meaning, but this might be putting the cart before the horse, particularly with poems where the structural and/or formal features are absolutely central to understanding what the poem is trying to achieve. I wonder that whilst many of us are reviewing our KS3 assessments, we should recognise that here we have a unique opportunity to influence the workings of literary interpretation from within that interpretative community. There are enough of us and we have sufficient time to significantly improve they way we teach our students to read and approach poetry, or indeed any text for that matter.

Who knows, if we got things right from the off, by the time they were in year 11, our students might even be able to understand the difference between a metaphor and a simile.

Anyway,

thanks

very much

for

reading….

Visual Learning: using graphics to teach complex literary terms

Three-Types-of-Learners-in-elearning.png

I have always tried to pay attention to the way that I present material to my students. Don’t get me wrong, I am not interested in style over substance, and I certainly don’t spend hours labouring away over every resource that I use in class. If there is a quicker, equally effective way of teaching something, then I will take it. I’m not a masochist.

Most of my resources now are paper copy quizzes for retrieval practice and elaboration, many of which have proved very effective at A level. I try to use the board as much as possible, whether to post the all-important learning objective model writing, record the unfolding of the lesson to ease the pressure on working memories or as a means of explaining tricky ideas or concepts more fully, often with an accompanying visual.

The problem is that I am a terrible artist. Unlike the wonderfully talented Oliver Caviglioli, whose illustrations and generosity are first class, my drawings are sad and pathetic. I would love to be Rolf Harris a great illustrator, but I can barely write legibly, let alone draw anything beyond a stick man! I remember a couple of years ago I drew a picture of a horse for a year poetry lesson, and the final product looked more like a pregnant camel with IBS than the thoroughbred I’d intended.

Fortunately, in the age of the Internet and Powerpoint (sorry, Jo), I have some pretty decent tools at my disposal to help me to make up for my artistic deficiency. As I have become increasingly aware of the power of combing words and images in boosting student learning, I have spent more of my time thinking about how images, in particular graphical representations, can be used to help with my teaching, such as in my explanations of complex literary concepts.

One of these troublesome concepts that seems to crop up whenever I teach Christina Rossetti’s ‘Goblin Market’ is allegory. ‘Goblin Market’ is a narrative poem with a familiar story: a young girl tempted into sin; her subsequence loss of innocence before salvation through sacrifice. Most people reading will get the allegory to the story of the Fall of Man. There are one or two differences in the poem – there is no Adam, only horny and grotesque Goblin men, and the saviour is a woman, not the Son of God – but the overarching parallels are pretty clear.

The problem is when it comes to explaining the concept of allegory in and of itself to students – in other words outside the context of the specific example – students really struggle. No matter how hard I try to explain allegory clearly, with examples and analogies aplenty, students just don’t seem to fully get it. Now, you might be tempted to say that I should look to hone my explanation. Trust me on this one: I have honed it to within an inch of its life. There is simply no room for any more honing.

So, this year I thought I’d take a different tact and invest a bit of time producing a graphical representation to sit alongside my verbal explanation. I don’t have any hard evidence to show that I what have done has been any more successful than usual. It seems to have made a difference, with more students being able to explain the concept than before, but then again this may well be a case of confirmation bias. Or brighter students. Or chance.

As you can see from below, the slide I have used in the past to explain allegory is pretty contemptuous – an overreaching definition which I expand and exemplify, with a bulleted breakdown of the two main types, political and the allegory of ideas. There are even a couple of token images thrown in, which I am not really convinced add any real value.

Screenshot 2017-04-22 08.32.40

My next effort is, I think, a real improvement. The graphical representations make the points of comparison between in an allegory between Text A (‘Goblin Market’) and Text B (The story of the Fall of Man) much clearer, and they have the added advantage of being able to highlight where the biblical comparison breaks down, in that some pretty big parts of the Bible story are missing in Rossetti’s poem, such as the presence of God.

Screenshot 2017-04-22 08.32.48

I then attempted to flesh out this initial explanation with an amended version of my original effort. This time I added a relational dimension to my diagram which enabled me to visualise the difference between allegory and other related literary concepts, such as fable and parable. The trouble was that whilst I had made some visual links between genres clear, I had lost the power of the previous graphic to embody the workings of allegory itself.

Screenshot 2017-04-22 08.32.56

My final version therefore combines the best elements of my previous attempts, including the graphical embodiment of the concept of allegory, the relational links to other genres and better images to exemplify examples of the different forms of allegory. The visual cues and graphical representations, along with my honed explanation, seem to have been much more successful in shifting my students’ understanding of allegory. At least, I hope that is the case.

Screenshot 2017-04-22 08.33.07Allegory is not the only literary concept I have attempted to represent graphically this way. I hope to blog about others in the future, so watch this space.

Thanks for reading.